Monday, June 10, 2013

Saltiest Sodium. Dumbest Dude.

My work-shop on sodium includes a bit on all the cases of hyponatremia due to fraternity hazing.

I also include the crazy case of Jennifer Strange.

But I had never heard of idiot induced hypernatremia until this case report:

A nineteen year old male drank a quart sized bottle of soy sauce on a bet.
Two hours later he was brought to the ER comatose and seizing. His sodium was 177. They initiated hypotonic fluids and arranged transfer to a tertiary care center. At the tertiary care center the sodium was still higher at 191. The doctors then changed the fluids to D5W at 12,000 mL per hour. They gave 6 liters of D5W in 30 minutes.

After the infusion he opened his eyes and regained spontaneous movement. He was discharged on hospital day four neurologically intact with only some minor abnormalities on the head MRI, all attributed to postictal changes.

How high is a sodium of 191? MedCalc will not even accept it as a possible sodium concentration:

A couple items of note:

  • The infusion of D5W raised his serum glucose from 365 (hyperglycemia causes insulin resistance) to 1,116 mg/dL.
  • The authors do not comment on what access they used to infuse D5W at a liter every five minutes.
  • In addition to the hyperglycemia, the D5W infusion dropped the potassium from 5.1 to 2.5 in 30 minutes! That is kind of terrifying.
  • The authors use the Katz correction for hyperglycemia, (eat it Hillier).
  • The authors do not discuss how they decided on 6 liters of D5W. Full correction down to 140 would by roughly 12 liters, so perhaps they decided on 12 liters in an hour with continuous neurologic assessment and when he began to have spontaneous motor movement after 30 minutes they slowed down.

Some nerdery about the sodium exposure: He drank a quart of soy sauce. A quart is 946 mL. The article states that soy sauce is 17-18% sodium chloride. Here are some meta calculations, in case you are interested:

Read the article, it's a good read and it has the highest urinary sodium I have ever seen, 270 mmol/L (almost twice as salty as normal saline). They discuss other extreme hypernatremic conditions, and theories on rapid or slow correction.

Slides for Keynote | PDF

Update from Twitter:

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